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A Look at Recent Paradigms in Criminology
In the Oxford Handbook of Criminology, there is a chapter in the book that was written by Jock Young. This chapter is entitled “Recent Paradigms in Criminology”. This piece of work is used by many people in order to take a critical look at criminology and the ways in which crime is affected by society and other influences. There is a particular influence that is placed on the society in which a crime takes place. In some areas the structure and organization which supports crime and the criminals, while in other areas there is more of an emphasis that is placed on the disorganization of society as a major factor in the perpetuation of crime in the area. In order to limit crime, it is important that individuals within a society put forth the effort to understand what it is that causes crime and the release of the criminal element into the culture or society.

Exploring the History of Criminology
To many people interested in the roots and origin of Criminology, Lombroso is considered to be the father of the science, meaning that he explored it and examined it from many angles in order to expose it. It was first used by a law professor in Italy, Raffaele Garofalo, who actually used the Italian term for the word, criminologia. A French anthropologist also used the term around the same time as Garofalo, who referred to the term as criminology. There are some who believe that it is possible that the study of bumps on an individual’s skull, referred to as Phrenology, is a better mark of representation when it comes to the scientific origins of the term. Lombroso is considered to be the father of criminology because of the many advances that he attempted to make in the field. If not for him, criminology might not be as developed as it is today.

What is the Definition of Criminology?
When thinking about what criminology is, an individual needs to first consider what aspects and fields are affected by the criminal element. Some of these fields will also either perpetuate or deter crime, depending on how they are used. Anthropology, sociology, law, research positions and others all tie into criminology. Criminology could then be defined as how any of these many multitudes of society’s development and creation are able to affect how individuals interact, specifically when it comes to the degenerate element. Using science to approach the evolution of crime within an area or timeframe allows individuals to learn how an environment may respond to and otherwise affect crime. Certain things can be analyzed in order to come to a conclusion about crime and the criminal element within a particular area, such as any hereditary elements that may have had a factor or psychological issues that would have instigated the crime. In addition, many criminologists are also interested in studying how the punishment of criminals affects the likelihood of the same crimes being performed.


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